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PyQuery用法详解

python aide_941 45℃

PyQuery用法详解

本文转自:

https://blog.csdn.net/jeremyjone/article/details/80450236


前言

PyQuery 是灵活而又强大的网页解析库,而在爬虫框架 PySpider 和 Scrapy 中又随处可以 PyQuery 的身影。

本节,我们通过一连串的极其简易的实例,来深入学习 PyQuery。

那我们开始吧!

一、初始化方式

有三种,可以传入字符串,传入url,传入文件。

字符串初始化

html = '''
<div>
    <ul>
         <li class="item-0">first item</li>
         <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
         <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
     </ul>
 </div>
'''
from pyquery import PyQuery as pq
doc = pq(html)#声明pq对象
print(doc('li'))#用css选择器来实现,如果要选id前面加#,如果选class,前面加.,如果选标签名,什么也不加
print(type(doc('li')))
for item in doc('li'):
    print(item)
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<li class="item-0">first item</li>
         <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
         <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
     
<class 'pyquery.pyquery.PyQuery'>
<Element li at 0x71ff188>
<Element li at 0x71ff148>
<Element li at 0x71ff088>
<Element li at 0x71ff0c8>
<Element li at 0x71ff108>
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URL初始化

直接传入URL,进行URL初始化,程序会自动请求URL,获得html并返回要查找的字符串

from pyquery import PyQuery as pq
doc = pq(url='http://www.baidu.com')#程序会自动请求url
print(doc('head'))#返回head标签
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<head><meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8"/><meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=Edge"/><meta content="always" name="referrer"/><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="http://s1.bdstatic.com/r/www/cache/bdorz/baidu.min.css"/><title>百度一下,你就知道</title></head> 
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文件初始化

from pyquery import PyQuery as pq
doc = pq(filename='D://demo.html')#直接传入文件名称及路径,程序会自动寻找并请求
print(doc('li'))
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二、基本css选择器

html = '''
<div id="container">
    <ul class="list">
         <li class="item-0">first item</li>
         <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
         <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
     </ul>
 </div>
'''
from pyquery import PyQuery as pq
doc = pq(html)
print(doc('#container .list li'))#会查找id为container class为list,标签为li的对象,只是层级关系,并没有后者一定是前者的子对象

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<li class="item-0">first item</li>
         <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
         <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
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查找元素

#查找元素
html = '''
<div id="container">
    <ul class="list">
         <li class="item-0">first item</li>
         <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
         <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
     </ul>
 </div>
'''

#子元素
from pyquery import PyQuery as pq
doc = pq(html)
items = doc('.list')#拿到items
print(type(items))
print(items)
lis = items.find('li')#利用find方法,查找items里面的li标签,得到的lis也可以继续调用find方法往下查找,层层剥离
print(type(lis))
print(lis)


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<class 'pyquery.pyquery.PyQuery'>
<ul class="list">
         <li class="item-0">first item</li>
         <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
         <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
     </ul>
 
<class 'pyquery.pyquery.PyQuery'>
<li class="item-0">first item</li>
         <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
         <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
     
<class 'pyquery.pyquery.PyQuery'>
<li class="item-0">first item</li>
         <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
         <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
     
<li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
         <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
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也可以用.children()查找直接子元素

#也可以用.children()查找直接子元素
html = '''
<div id="container">
    <ul class="list">
         <li class="item-0">first item</li>
         <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
         <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
     </ul>
 </div>
'''

lis = items.children()
print(type(lis))
print(lis)
lis = items.children('.active')
print(lis)
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<class 'pyquery.pyquery.PyQuery'>
<li class="item-0">first item</li>
         <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
         <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
     
<li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
         <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
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父元素

#父元素
html = '''
<div id="container">
    <ul class="list">
         <li class="item-0">first item</li>
         <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
         <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
     </ul>
 </div>
'''
from pyquery import PyQuery as pq
doc = pq(html)
items = doc('.list')
container = items.parent()#.parent()查找对象的父元素
print(type(container))
print(container)

#祖先节点
parents = items.parents()#.parents()祖先节点
parent = items.parents('#container')#当然也可以传入参数
print('parent:', parent)
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<class 'pyquery.pyquery.PyQuery'>
<div id="container">
    <ul class="list">
         <li class="item-0">first item</li>
         <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
         <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
     </ul>
 </div>
parent: <div id="container">
    <ul class="list">
         <li class="item-0">first item</li>
         <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
         <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
     </ul>
 </div>
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兄弟元素

#兄弟元素
html = '''
<div class="wrap">
    <div id="container">
        <ul class="list">
             <li class="item-0">first item</li>
             <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
             <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
         </ul>
     </div>
 </div>
'''
from pyquery import PyQuery as pq
doc = pq(html)
li = doc('.list .item-0.active')#空格表示里面,没有空格表示整体
print(li.siblings())#.siblings()兄弟元素,即同级别的元素,不包括自己
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<li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0">first item</li>
             <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
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三、获取信息

获取属性

#获取属性
html = '''
<div class="wrap">
    <div id="container">
        <ul class="list">
             <li class="item-0">first item</li>
             <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
             <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
         </ul>
     </div>
 </div>
'''
from pyquery import PyQuery as pq
doc = pq(html)
a = doc('.item-0.active a')
print(a)
print(a.attr('href'))#定义a标签的href属性用于指定超链接目标的URL。 如果用户选择了a标签中的内容,那么浏览器会尝试检索并显示href属性指定的URL所表示的文档,或者执行JavaScript表达式、方法和函数的列表。
print(a.attr.href)
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<a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a>
link3.html
link3.html
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获取文本

#获取文本
html = '''
<div class="wrap">
    <div id="container">
        <ul class="list">
             <li class="item-0">first item</li>
             <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
             <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
         </ul>
     </div>
 </div>
'''
from pyquery import PyQuery as pq
doc = pq(html)
a = doc('.item-0.active a')
print(a)
print(a.text)#.text()获取文本信息
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<a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a>
<bound method PyQuery.text of [<a>]>
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获取HTML

#获取html
html = '''
<div class="wrap">
    <div id="container">
        <ul class="list">
             <li class="item-0">first item</li>
             <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
             <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
         </ul>
     </div>
 </div>
'''
from pyquery import PyQuery as pq
doc = pq(html)
li = doc('.item-0.active')
print(li)
print(li.html())#.html()获取所在html
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<li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
             
<a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a>
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四、DOM操作

#addClass、removeClass
html = '''
<div class="wrap">
    <div id="container">
        <ul class="list">
             <li class="item-0">first item</li>
             <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
             <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
         </ul>
     </div>
 </div>
'''
from pyquery import PyQuery as pq
doc = pq(html)
li = doc('.item-0.active')
print(li)
li.removeClass('active')#删除
print(li)
li.addClass('active')#增加
print(li)
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<li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
             
<li class="item-0"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
             
<li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
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attr、css

#attr、css
html = '''
<div class="wrap">
    <div id="container">
        <ul class="list">
             <li class="item-0">first item</li>
             <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
             <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
         </ul>
     </div>
 </div>
'''
from pyquery import PyQuery as pq
doc = pq(html)
li = doc('.item-0.active')
print(li)
li.attr('name', 'link')#增加一个属性
print(li)
li.css('font-size', '14px')#增加一个css
print(li)
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<li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
             
<li class="item-0 active" name="link"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
             
<li class="item-0 active" name="link" style="font-size: 14px"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
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remove

#remove
html = '''
<div class="wrap">
    Hello, World
    <p>This is a paragraph.</p>
 </div>
'''
from pyquery import PyQuery as pq
doc = pq(html)
wrap = doc('.wrap')
print(wrap.text())
wrap.find('p').remove()#找到p标签然后删除
print(wrap.text())
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Hello, World
This is a paragraph.
Hello, World
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其他DOM方法

其他DOM方法
http://pyquery.readthedocs.io/en/latest/api.html
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五、伪类选择器

html = '''
<div class="wrap">
    <div id="container">
        <ul class="list">
             <li class="item-0">first item</li>
             <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0 active"><a href="link3.html"><span class="bold">third item</span></a></li>
             <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
         </ul>
     </div>
 </div>
'''
from pyquery import PyQuery as pq
doc = pq(html)
li = doc('li:first-child')
print(li)
li = doc('li:last-child')
print(li)
li = doc('li:nth-child(2)')
print(li)
li = doc('li:gt(2)')
print(li)
li = doc('li:nth-child(2n)')
print(li)
li = doc('li:contains(second)')
print(li)
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<li class="item-0">first item</li>
             
<li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
         
<li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
             
<li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
             <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
         
<li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
             <li class="item-1 active"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
             
<li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
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